Trailing arbutus

Trailing arbutus


Andy's Northern Ontario Wildflowers

Plants in a Coniferous Forest

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Illustrated on this page are some northern Ontario alien wildflowers that occur in a coniferous forest.

Coniferous stands occur across Ontario and are abundant in the boreal forest that covers much of northern Ontario.

The coniferous forest has acid soil derived of sandy material, pine needles, and sometimes swampy or wet mosses. Low-lying areas are wet and contain abundant sphagnum moss or other plants that tolerate acid water conditions.

Higher areas or rock outcrops are covered by shallow, sandy, mineral soil that lacks organic material. Some rocky areas may be bare exposed rock that are covered by mosses that acquire nutrients directly from the rocks they cover.

Rain water quickly runs off the higher areas and the soil dries out quickly. These areas approach desert-like conditions during periods of drought.

Evening temperatures are generally cool, but day-time temperatures in the summer may be very hot. Winter temperatures may drop as low as -40C. Snow cover is 1-3m, depending on the area.

Plants are adapted to acid soil and the lack of nutrients.

Language of Flowers: The word pine means "time", endurance", "daring", and "pity". Source

Click here for more habitat information:

Plants that grow on the dry rocky areas or on the pine forest floor:


Typical forest floor in a pine forest.  Note the lack of under growth because of the low light and the acid conditions.  The acid conditions result from the pine needle litter.

Location: Burwash
Date: October 7, 2000. 

Pine forest floor.


Plants that grow in, or beside, the pine forest on dry rocky areas or on the dry forest floor.

Bearberry; also known as Bears' Grape,  Mountain Box, and Kinnikinick; low trailing shrub.

Flower:White or pink in terminal clusters; bell-shaped; drooping; 5 fused petals; 5 mm long; May-July.

Leaves: Evergreen; 1-4 cm long; smooth, leathery, thick; green on both sides; rounded tip; 1 - 4 cm long.

Stem: Woody stems that lie on the ground; has many branches covered with dark flaky bark; forms large mats.

Fruit: Dull red berry that is edible, but that are dry and mealy.

Habitat: Prefers the coniferous forest with a rocky or sandy soil.  Bearberry also occurs on rocky areas and old beach transitions areas related to alvars on Manitoulin Island.

Interest: A wash of bearberry leaves is a folk remedy to stop the spread of poison-ivy rash. A wash of bearberry leaves is a folk remedy to stop the spread of poison-ivy rash. The leaves were also used as a tobacco substitute. A yellow dye can be made from the leaves of Bearberry. The Latin name means "bear-cluster, the grape of a bear".

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Bearberry flower, copyright 2004 Andy Fyon.

Bearberry leaves, copyright 2004 Andy Fyon.

Bearberry - low ground cover over sandy or rocky areas.

Location: Lorne Falls
Date: September 25, 2004.

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Bearberry fruit. In Ojibway, the plant is called "bear cub berry". (Source: Andy Yesno, Eabametoong First Nation)

Location: Eabametoong First Nation (Fort Hope)
Date: September 26, 2002.

Click here for more insight to the Eabametoong Fist Nation.

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Bearberry fruit, Eabametoong First Nation, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Bunchberry; also known as Bunchberry Dogwood, Dwarf Dogwood, Canadian Bunchberry, Dogwood Bunchberry.

Perennial; member of the Dogwood Family.

Flower: Greenish tiny cluster surrounded by 4 white, 1-2 cm long petal-like bracts; June-July

Leaves: Opposite, but at top of stem; 4-6; egg-shaped to oblong and taper to point and base, parallel veined. Although not rigorous, our observation is that all plants with fruit have 6 leaves, whereas barren plants have 4 leaves.

Stem: From creeping root-stalk, flowering stem 10-20 cm high

Height: hugs ground to 20 cm tall.

Fruit: Red; late summer (see following photos).

Habitat: Cool mixed forest, from deciduous to coniferous; less commonly in open areas adjacent to the forest edge.

Interest: spreads by rhizomes.  Many people think that there is a single, large white flower on this plant. However, the four white "petals" are not part of the flower at all. They are white-coloured bracts. The actual flower consists of a dense cluster of greenish flowers in the centre of the four white bracts. The Latin name Cornus comes from the Latin word, cornu, meaning "horn, antler" and canadensis, from the Latin, "of Canada".

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Bunchberry flower and leaves, Burwash Ontario, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Bunchberry wildflower, copyright June 13, 2004, Andy Fyon.

Bunch berry prefers to grow in shaded areas. In this photo, a large carpet of bunch berry plants grow in the shade under a birch tree.

Location: Burwash
Date: June 13, 2004

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Bunch berry fruit, Trout Lake Road, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Bunch berry fruit. Note the 6 leaves of the fertile plants.

Location: Trout Lake road
Date: August 7, 2002

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Reindeer lichen, copyright 2007 Andy Fyon,

Reindeer Lichen

Shrub lichen with a round stem with numerous branches.

Has an ash-grey coloured surface.

Height: 6 to 10 cm tall.


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See also page on Moss & lichen

Rock Tripe

Circular leaf lichen, up to 30 cm in diameter; leathery when wet, brittle when dry.

Attached to rock by a central stalk.

Upper surface is brown to green when fresh; lower surface is black.

Height: Flat.

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rock tripe lichen, copyright 2007 Andy Fyon,

Wintergreen flower, Maykynen Road, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

wintergreen_berry, copyright 2006 Andy Fyon

Wintergreen; also known as Box Berry,  Mountain tea, Checkerberry, Deerberry, Eastern Teaberry, Ground Holly, Mountain Tea, Creeping Wintergreen, Ground Tea, Partridge-Berry, Redberry Wintergreen, Spice Berry, Teaberry, and Winisibugons (Ojibwe meaning  "dirty leaf"); evergreen shrub.

Family Heath (Ericaceae)

Flower: White with 5 small lobes at tip; single, 5-8 mm long; nodding below the leaves; looks like a hanging bell; June - July.

Fruit: Round, red-coloured berry; 10 mm diameter; ripens in September; the fruit matures during the winter.

Leaves: Alternate, common near the tips of erect branches; have short stalk; simple; oval; rounded to pointed at tip; leathery; 1-5 cm long; leathery when mature; dark green and shiny. See following photo.

Stem: Slender, creeping on, or just below, the surface; woody stem.

Height: 5 - 15 cm.

Habitat: Coniferous forest, mossy areas on rocky outcrops, open shade, dry or moist sites in pine woods, sandy, acid soil (pH 5 to 6), dry to wet woods and clearings, peaty bogs,  swamps.

Interest: The leaves have been used as a tea substitute. The leaves have the flavour of wintergreen when chewed. This flavour occurs because a glucoside (substances that produce sugar) in the leaf breaks down in water to produce methyl salicylate. Compounds from this methyl salicylate are used to make methanol, which used in food flavorings and preservatives, compounds used in suntan lotions, and to make acetylsalicylic acid, also called "aspirin".

Flower Location: Makynen Road
Date: August 5, 2002.

Berry location: Burwash
Date: April 14, 2006

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Patch of wintergreen with red fruit.

Interest: The Latin name procumbens means prostrate, referring to the shrubs low-growing habit. A traditional Native American remedy for aching limbs, fever, sore throats, and sore stomach. Has a menthol flavour and was a substitute for imported tea and to flavour chewing gum and toothpaste. Wintergreen oil in the leaves contain methyl salicylate, a pain- and inflammation-relieving compound.

Location: Burwash
Date: May 18, 2003.

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Wintergreen fruit, copyright 2007 Andy Fyon,


Partridgeberry; perennial herbaceous woody shrub; also known as partridge berry (or partridgeberry), running fox, and two-eyed berry.

Small trailing vine, less than 0.5 m long.

Family: Madder (Rubiaceae).

Flower: White to purple tinged/paired, tubular; hairs inside flower; usually 4 spreading lobes, but as many as 8 in some cases; 10-15 cm long, fragrant; in pairs; June-July.

Leaves: Opposite, evergreen; rounded and blunt tip; 1-2.5 cm long and about the same width; smooth, dark green, toothless.

Height: Creeping, generally less than 6 cm tall, and up to 30 cm long; non climbing.

Fruit: Bright red double berries; August-September (see following images).

Habitat: Dry or moist woods, along stream banks and on sandy slopes.

Interest: The twin flowers fuse so that there are two flowers for every berry. The species name, repens, is the Latin adjective for the word "creeping".

Location: Burwash
Date: October 14, 2000.

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Partridgeberry flowers, Copyright 2003 Andy Fyon,

Partridgeberry flower - note the twin flowers on each stem.

Location: Burwash
Date: June 30, 2003

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Partridgeberry flower node, copyright 2003 Andy Fyon,

Partridgeberry flower node, about 1 week before the white flowers opened.

Location: Burwash
Date: June 24, 2001

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Partridgeberry fruit, copyright 2003 Andy Fyon,

Partridgeberry red fruit.

Location: Burwash
Date: December 16, 2001.

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Partridgeberry flower, Copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

Partridgeberry flower carpet.

Location: Burwash
Date: June 30, 2003

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Common Juniper Shrub; also known as  Dwarf Juniper, Mountain Common Juniper, Old Field Common Juniper, Prostrate Juniper, Gorst, Ground juniper, Hackmatack, Horse savin, Juniper, Juniper bush.

Low coniferous evergreen shrub; trailing branches.

Leaves: Stiff and prickly needles 6 - 15 mm long; often has white stripe on upper needle surface.

Fruit: see next photograph.

Height: Less than 1.5 m tall.

Habitat: Open woodlands, fields, rocky areas.

Interest: The name juniper comes from the Dutch word for gin (jenever). Gin owes its flavour to juniper's volatile oil. Gin distillers once used hand-picked juniper berries to add flavour to gin. A juniper by the door was thought to keep witches away.


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Language of Flowers: Juniper means "perfect loveliness" or "protection". Source

Common juniper berry, Killarney, Copyright 2004 Andy Fyon.

Common Juniper Berries:

Fruit: Fleshy, berry-like cones; 6 - 10 mm wide; waxy, bluish colour; white dusty covering; contains 1 to 3 seeds.

Location: Killarney lighthouse
Date: August 29, 2004.

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Ground pine:

Erect tree-like perennial club-moss.

Leaves: Needle-like leaves; lance-shaped with sharp point at tip; 5 mm long.

Height: <25 cm.

Fruit: Yellow, cylindrical, spore-bearing cones up to 4 cm long at branch tips; erect.

Location: Burwash
Date: November 9, 2003

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ground pine, Copyright 2003 Andy Fyon

Common club-moss, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Wolf's Claw Club-moss: creeping perennial; also known as Running Clubmoss.

Low, trailing perennial evergreen club-moss; creeping stems which spread out over the ground with erect branches; densely leafed.

Leaves: Needle-like leaves; green; lance-shaped or linear; bright green; 2 to 3 mm long; hairlike point; spreading upward.

Height: Low, trailing.

Spore Clusters: Spores developed in upright cones on long stalks at the end of branches; up to 4 cm long; cones individual or in groups of 2 or 3; See following photo.

Habitat: Moist forest, edges of clearings adjacent to forests; widespread across Ontario's boreal forest.

Interest: It is reported that some American First Nation peoples used the plant tea for postpartum pains, fever and weakness. Also, the spores are highly flammable and were once used by photographers and theatre performers as flash powder.

Location: Paddy Creek
Date: November 10, 2002.

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Club-moss spore clusters.

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Club-moss candles. copyright 2003 Andy Fyon,

Southern ground cedar, copyright 2005 Andy Fyon.

Southern Ground Cedar

Erect ever-green club-moss; creeping on ground with erect tips 3-40 cm tall; irregularly forked 3-4 times.

Leaves: Resemble cedar leaves; < 1 mm long in 4-rows.

Fruiting structure: Cylindrical, spore-bearing cones, 1-3 cm long in groups of 1-5.

Habit: Flattened branches. Photo illustrates southern ground cedar in patch of juniper moss.

Location: Makynen Road
Date: July 27, 2009

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Southern Ground cedar growing on mineral soil.

Location: Makynen Road, east of Highway 69.
Date: October 1, 2006

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Ground cedar, copyright 2006 Andy Fyon.

Trailing arbutus, also known as Creeping Mayflower, Arbutus, Trailing, Epigee Rampante, Gravel Plant, Ground Laurel, May Flower, Mountain Pink, Trailing-arbutus and Winter Pink; perennial evergreen shrub.

Family: Heath (Ericaceae)

Flowers: White or pinkish, funnel-shaped, with 5-spreading lobes, 1 to 2 cm long, waxy; very fragrant; clusters at axils of leaves and at the tips of branches; the strength of the fragrance varies with location and the nature of the soil - the fragrance is strong when growing under evergreen trees; early spring.

Leaves: Alternate, hairy stalked, oval with blunt or slightly pointed tip, underside hairy, toothless; leathery texture; .

Stem: Prostrate stems, creeping or trailing form.

Habitat: Mixed forest, typically acidic soil, sandy or peaty woodland; the leaves are intolerant of tree leaf accumulation; hence, the plant generally grows in open or lightly wooded areas, or else on slopes where leaves do not accumulate.

Interest: This is one of the earliest and most aromatic of the spring wildflowers. The Puritans named the Trailing Arbutus the "Mayflower" in remembrance of the ship that carried them to the bleak coast of New England after a long and severe winter. Trailing arbutus is difficult to start and once gone, it is likely gone forever because it rarely produces fruits, it's seeds are dispersed by ants, and it requires a certain type of fungus to grow with its root system or it will not establish. Trailing Arbutus is virtually impossible to transplant.

Language of Flowers: Trailing arbutus means "struggle and hope" or "welcome". Source

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Trailing arbutus leaves and flower buds. copyright 2003 Andy Fyon,

Trailing arbutus flower, copyright 2005 Andy Fyon.

Trailing arbutus flowers.
Location: Secord Road
Date: April 17, 2005

]Pink Lady's Slipper, also called Moccasin Flower, Nerve Root, Pink Lady's-slipper; member of the Orchid Family.

Family: Orchid (Orchidaceae)

Flower: Pink with reddish veins; lower petal is pouch-like, inflated, about 6 cm long; lateral petals narrow and longer than sepals; sepals are petal-like, greenish-purple, lance-shaped, 3-5 cm long; May-July.

Leaves: Basal, simple, 2, oblong, taper to a point; up to 20 cm long and 7 cm wide; prominent parallel veins.

Height: 10-55 cm.

Habitat: Generally mixed or coniferous forest that is moist and shady. Usually found in the higher and dryer parts of coniferous woods, often in a thin layer of pine needles over rocks, it is also sometimes found in bogs and wet places.

Interest: The orchid lives in a special relationship with soil fungi (Rhizoctonia), which helps the seeds germinate and grow. The fungus nourishes the seedling for 2 or 3 years before the plant has leaves large enough to sustain itself by photosynthesis. Because of this special relationship, it is virtually impossible to transplant this wildflower into your garden. Please leave it in the wild. Lady's Slipper plants can take years to mature, and their average life span is about 20 years. That is a good reason NOT to pick the flowers.

Language of Flowers: Lady's slipper means "capricious beauty" and "win me and wear me". Source

Location: Burwash
Date: June 6, 2003

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Pink Lady's Slipper, copyright 2006 Andy Fyon.


Image on right: After flowering, the fruit of the Pink Lady's Slipper is distinctive clue to the plant.

Location: Killarney Provincial Park, Cranberry bog.
Date: September 15, 2002

Below - Detail of Pink Lady's Slipper flowers.

Location: Agnew Lake
Date: June 6, 2003

Pink lady's slipper flower, copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

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Pink Lady's Slipper fruit, Copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.


Fringed polygala, Burwash Ontario, copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Fringed polygala; also known as Gay Wings, Gaywings, Fringed Milkwort, and Flowering Wintergreen (although it is not  related to real wintergreen), Fringed milkwort; perennial.

Family: Milkwort

Flower: Rose-purple and rarely white; 1-1.5 cm long; 1 central tube-shaped petal, flanked by two sepal wings; the lower petal is fringed; 2 sepals are wing-like; May-June. See following photo.

Leaves: Alternate, 3-6; appear whorled, simple, oval to elliptical, blunt tip; 1.5-4 cm long.

Height: 5-15 cm tall.

Habitat: Prefers full to partial shade and moist soil. Typically occurs in coniferous forest.

Interest: Folklore suggests that plants that belonged to the Milkwort Family would increase milk production if eaten by nursing mothers or fed to cows. Where present, it occurs in clusters that resemble a flock of rose-purple or white butterflies or tiny airplanes. The plant keeps one fertile flower buried on a stem, used for propagation.

Location: Burwash
Date: June 2, 2002

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Fringed polygala carpet, Burwash Ontario, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Fringed polygala carpet on the edge of a beaver meadow.

Location: Burwash
Date: June 2, 2002

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Lesser pyrola. Copyright 2003 Andy Fyon,

Lesser pyrola; also known as Lessor Wintergreen and Small Shinleaf; perennial.

Flower: White to pink; bell-shaped and waxy; nodding; 5 petals, 3-5 mm long; 6-17 flowers on spike above basal leaves; does not have a style sticking out of the flower; June-August.

Leaves: Basal rosette, stalked, simple, dark green; oval or rounded, blunt to slightly pointed tip; evergreen colour; 1-5 cm long.

Stem: Single flowering stem, 5-25 cm tall, leafless.

Height: Up to 25 cm.

Other: This flower does not stick its tongue out. Lesser Pyrola is a member of the Wintergreen Family. Like other members of the Wintergreen Family, the leaves of the Lesser Pyrola contain a drug related to aspirin that has been used to relieve pain from wounds. Lesser pyrola is the only pyrola that does NOT have a style protruding from its flower. Compare with Shinleaf

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Lesser pyrola leaves with single flower stalk.

Location: Makynen Road
Date: July 13, 2002

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Lesser pyrola leaves, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

One sided pyrola plant, Copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

One-sided Pyrola; also known as One-sided Wintergreen; evergreen perennial.

Family: Wintergreen

Flower: White to greenish white; bell-shaped and waxy; nodding; one-sided; style straight and projects from flower; 5 petals, about 5 mm across; June-August.

Leaves: Basal rosette, stalked, blades longer than the stalks; green on top, lighter green below; oval, pointed at apex.

Stem: Short, slender, ascending but not erect.

Height: Up to 25 cm.

Habitat: Range of forest habitats; cold, shady site with a humus, moist to dry soil, shade.

Other: The species name secunda describes the one-sided (secund) arrangement of flowers.

Location: Killarney highway
Date: July 7, 2002.

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One-sided Pyrola flower detail.

Location: Makynen Road, Sudbury
Date: July 6, 2002.

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One sided pyrola, Copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

Green-leaved Rattlesnake Plantain, Killarney Provincial Park, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Green-leaved rattlesnake plantain; member of the Orchid Family

Flower: White; cylindrical cluster of many small flowers on top of a leafless stalk; each flower is about 5 mm long; upper sepal and 2 united petals form a hood over a cupped lip petal; July - September.

Leaves: Green with a distinctive, single main white vein; up to 8 cm long; ovate to oblong.

Stem: Single flowering stem, up to 45 cm tall; leafless.

Height: Up to 45 cm.

Habitat: Dry to moist coniferous and deciduous woods; well drained areas.

Other: The single main white vein on the leaves of the Green-leaved Rattlesnake Plantain differs from the mottled and many white-veined leaves of the  Rattlesnake Plantain.

Location: Killarney Provincial Park, Cranberry Bog trail
Date: August 17, 2002.

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Detail of the flower of the Green-leaved rattlesnake plantain.

Location: Killarney Provincial Park, Cranberry Bog trail
Date: August 17, 2002.

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Green-leaved Rattlesnake Plantain, Killarney Provincial Park, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Alaska orchid, Manitoulin Island, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

Alaska Orchid; member of the Orchid Family; also known as Slender-spire Orchid.

Flower: Greenish white to straw-coloured, fragrant; each flower is about 1-3 mm long; short spur; ate June to early August.

Leaves: Generally only 2 leaves above bracts on the lower part of the stem; shiny green to yellow-green; narrow, blunt; 5 - 12 cm long and 1-3 cm wide; leaves wither before or during flowering.

Stem: Single spike with numerous tiny flowers.

Height: 10 - 60 cm.

Habitat: Dry, thin, limestone-rich soil, commonly in partial or full shade of conifer trees.

Other: The Alaska Orchid is common on the west coast of North America, but is rare in the east. In Ontario, it is uncommon to rare. In Ontario it occurs on the Bruce Peninsula and on Manitoulin Island and associated islands, including St. Joseph Island. Farther east, it occurs on Anticosti Island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. This eastern distribution (disjunct) is attributed to some to the geological history of the Manitoulin area - specifically, the orchid is thought to have been continuous from Alaska through Manitoulin Island to the east coast of Canada at a brief time when the glaciers melted 10,000 years ago. Check out the public talk by Andy Fyon on Manitoulin Island geology and plants.

Location: Burnt Island alvar, Manitoulin Island
Date: July 3, 2010.

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Detail of Alaska orchid flower.

Location: Burnt Island alvar, Manitoulin Island
Date: July 3, 2010.

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Alaska orchid flower, copyright 2010 Andy Fyon,

Alaska orchid leaves, copyright 2010 Andy Fyon,

Alaska orchid leaves (above) and flower stem (opposite).

Location: Burnt Island alvar, Manitoulin Island
Date: July 3, 2010.

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Alaska orchid flower stem, copyright 2010 Andy Fyon,

Pinesap; Indian-pipe Family; perennial; also known as False Beech-drops or Many-flower Indian-pipe.

Flower: Pale yellow to reddish; 5 regular parts; nodding on curved stems; single flower on each stem; after the flowers mature they become upright and support black seed capsules; flowers are up to 1 cm long; July - August.

Leaves: Pinesap has no real leaves, just scales.

Height: Up to 30 cm.

Habitat: woods, usually in acid soil.

Other: Pinesap plants that bloom in summer tend to be yellow. Those that bloom in fall are reddish. Pinesap, like its relative Indian pipe has no chlorophyll, so it does not get energy from sunlight. Pinesap is saprophytic. That is, it gets nutrients from organic matter in the soil.

Location: Trout Lake Road
Date: August 7, 2002.

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Pinesap, Trout Lake Road, Copyright 2002 Andy Fyon.

One-flowered wintergreen, copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

One-flowered wintergreen; native perennial; also known as Single Delight, One-flowered Pyrola, and Wood Nymph.

Flower: White; sometime pale pink; waxy look; 5 petals; single flower at top of stem; nodding; 1-2 cm wide; late June - August.

Leaves: Basal whorl of 3 leaves near base of stem; short stalks; round to egg-shaped; blunt tip; finely toothed; 1-3 cm long; veiny.

Stem: Leaves at base of stem in a whorl of 1-3 leaves.

Height: Up to 10 cm tall.

Habitat: Conifer and mixed forest, dry to moist; seems to prefer shaded, well drained soils in conifer forest in this area.

Interest: The name Moneses is derived from the Greek word  monos "single, and hesis, "delight". The name uniflora is derived from the Latin, "one flower". The flowers are hermaphrodite, meaning that it has both male and female organs, but it is pollinated by Bees, flies, beetles. The plant is self-fertile.

Location: Paddy Creek trail
Date: July 1, 2003

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One-flowered wintergreen flower.

Location: Paddy Creek trail
Date: July 1, 2003

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One-flowered wintergreen flower, copyright 2003 Andy Fyon.

Spurred gentian, copyright 2004 Andy Fyon.

Spurred Gentian; native annual or biennial; also known as American spurred-gentian, spurred-gentian.

Flower: Greenish to purplish; 4-lobed; the tips of the flowers have a bit of purple colouring; flowers occur in clusters at the end of the stem or in leaf axils; distinctive because of the four spurs at the base of each lobe point downward from the flower; flower is up to 12 mm long; late July - August.

Leaves: Opposite, 3 to 5 nerves; stem leaves are egg-shaped and nearly stalkless and 2 to 5 cm long.

Stem: May be branched or unbranched;

Height: up to 30 cm.

Habitat: Conifer and mixed forest and forest clearings especially in moist soil. The plant prefers moist sandy, loamy, or clay soils and prefers acid conditions typical of coniferous or mixed forests.

Other: The flowers are hermaphrodite - that is, they have both male and female organs.

Location: Manitoulin Island
Date: August 2, 2004.

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Example of the Spurred Gentian plant.

Location: Burnt Island alvar, Manitoulin Island
Date: July 3, 2010.

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Spurred gentian plant, copyright 2004 Andy Fyon.



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© 2001 - 2011 Andy Fyon

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Date last modified:

Andy Fyon

February 25, 2011

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